Thornton Shopping Center Redevelopment
The Thornton Shopping Center, constructed in the late 1950s, is Thornton’s oldest shopping center. It once hosted over 30 stores, and was once the heart of shopping in Thornton. For years, the city of Thornton has worked with the landowner to come to a redevelopment agreement, and today, the city is continuing redevelopment efforts in that area.
Updated January 22, 2021
January 20, 2021: The Municipal Court set over sentencing for code compliance violations until the end of April, 2021, in order to give the property owner time to correct remaining violations. Once the exact day and time are scheduled, details will be provided at the top of this page.
December 31, 2020: Thornton, LLC Bi-Weekly Status Update to CDPHE
December 18, 2020: The City of Thornton and Thornton Development Authority are taking steps to acquire the Thornton Shopping Center through the power of eminent domain, if necessary, and several contracts are underway to further that effort:
New Corrective Action Plan (CAP), including engineers' estimate of probable cost for cleanup and demolition;
Second opinion of engineers' estimate of probable cost for cleanup and demolition;
Eminent Domain Appraisal;
Update to the Blighted Conditions Survey for the South Thornton Urban Renewal Area Plan.
We expect these contracts to be completed by the end of January 2021.
December 1, 2020: Court Order Granting Stipulated Injunction
November 17, 2020:
Wendy's is undergoing renovation as permitted.
Word Alive Church is undergoing renovation as permitted.
The individual in the north building is being evicted and expected to be out by the end of this week.
The City's URA Property Maintenance Inspector walked the site with the property owner's prospective pavement contractor to identify specific areas that need to be repaired. An initial estimate of $55,000 of work was referenced. Apparently the contractor has yet to be authorized by the owner to proceed. No timeline was given for the repairs.
Some façade work was done to the east wall of the Family Dollar.
Some repairs were made to the base of the parking lot light pole near the water station along 88th Ave.
The City's Property Maintenance Inspector continues to work the City Attorney's Office in preparation for the next Court date, on December 2 regarding the numerous outstanding violations.
November 6, 2020: Thornton Shopping Center Repair Updates
October 29, 2020: CDPHE file suit against Thornton, LLC and Jay Brown to compel cleanup, per the approved Corrective Action Plan. Read the filing here.
October 29, 2020: Thornton Development Authority has executed a contract to update the Blighted Conditions Survey of the South Thornton Urban Renewal Area, which includes the Thornton Shopping Center property. The survey is scheduled for completion in about six weeks.
October 15, 2020 CDPHE Response to Owner's Modified Remediation Request
October 06, 2020 Owner's Proposal for Modified Remediation
September 3, 2020 CDPHE Asbestos Inspection Report
August 31, 2020 CDPHE Asbestos Inspection Report
August 17, 2020 CDPHE Corrective Action Compliance Inspection
August 14, 2020 Letter from Governor Polis
2019 Site Characterization Data Package
August 20, 2020: In
the matter of City of Thornton v. Thornton, LLC and Jay Brown, today
(8/20/20) was the first appearance on the summons for Thornton LLC and Jay
Brown personally. As is typical, the parties discussed procedural and
scheduling issues. The defense attorneys asked that Jay Brown be
dismissed from the case. The City opposed this motion. The court ordered
the defense to submit a motion within ten days to explain its request for
dismissing Jay Brown. After the motion is submitted, the City will have
ten days to respond. The next hearing will be another procedural hearing
where the court will rule on the motion to dismiss Jay Brown. After the
court decides the motion, barring any surprises or requests for a delay,
Thornton LLC will enter a plea of “guilty” or “not guilty” and set the case for
trial if the plea is “not guilty.” If Jay Brown’s cases are not
dismissed, he will also need to enter a plea.
On-site code enforcement activities continued. Thornton, LLC's maintenance manager is searching for replacement covers for light post wiring and other exposed electric panels and boxes throughout the property. He is also working on permitting and contracting for the required plumbing backflow preventers. Reportedly, scraping and painting of light posts is scheduled for this week.
August 19, 2020: The
Municipal Court hearing on August 20, 2020 is scheduled for 9:00 a.m. This “First Appearance” is largely
procedural, and is not the actual trial. To listen in, citizens are encouraged
to call the Municipal Court directly at 720-977-5400 during regular business
hours for information on how to observe remote hearings.
August 18, 2020: During the past week, city staff continued to enforce code compliance, including the need to install backflow preventers in fire suppression systems. Landscaping and interior clean up continued. The City's Task Force met to discuss an agenda for an upcoming meeting with CDPHE.
August 5, 2020: Staff held a remote listening session for neighborhood residents and interested parties, where we discussed the status of our efforts to affect positive change at the site. Attendees seemed to appreciate the information exchanged. A recording of the meeting can be accessed here: https://thorntonco.zoom.us/rec/share/yJBkFevI0WpIf9aO4krlY4wLQqfCT6a8hikW-_cEyE9gZX80jZO5LE00Xu2-i9BU Password: rsAt#c9s.
In 2019, Thornton Development Authority invested $150,000 into additional environmental investigations, to enable Flywheel Capital to draft alternative Corrective Action Plans for CDPHE consideration. One of the most important results of those investigations was the compilation of a comprehensive map of groundwater contamination, which can be viewed here.
July 28-29, 2020: The Thornton Development Authority approved a Resolution authorizing staff to explore acquisition of some or all of the plaza. Also, City Development approved a Minor Development Permit for façade improvements to Word Alive Ministries.
July 23, 2020: The City of Thornton has responded to Jay Brown's letter to Governor Polis. As a result, CDPHE has responded to the Mayor and will schedule a meeting with City leadership by mid-August 2020.
July 8, 2020: The City of Thornton is drafting a letter to the Governor’s Office in response to Jay Brown’s letter regarding the Thornton Shopping Center.
The City is also reaching out to CDPHE to discuss the current Corrective Action Plan enforcement and appropriate plans moving forward with adequate remediation of contamination at the Thornton Shopping Center.
A Special Meeting of Thornton Development Authority is scheduled for July 28th to allocate resources and authorize staff to pursue actions for redevelopment up to and potentially including eminent domain on the Thornton Shopping Center.
June 29, 2020: The Thornton Shopping Center owner failed to comply with the ruling of the Building Code Advisory Board, which gave until the end of May to develop a mutually agreeable compliance schedule for the numerous property maintenance violations for which a formal notice was issued in February 2020, after requests were made in 2019 that the owner come into compliance. The owner failed to even meet with the City to discuss a mutually acceptable schedule. After the deadline passed, City Development staff worked with the City's prosecutors on the preparation of the necessary documentation to support legal enforcement action in municipal court. A court hearing has been scheduled for Thursday, August 20, 2020.
Additional violations of various City Codes have been documented on this property and separate enforcement actions have been initiated. A summons was issued after interior inspections identified about a dozen violations of the Uniform Code for the Abatement of Dangerous Buildings, and a court hearing is scheduled for August 20, 2020. Nuisance Code violation notices for junk and weeds are in the enforcement process, and two instances of graffiti have already been removed from the property. A notice for over 50 new, previously undocumented violations of the South Thornton Urban Renewal Authority Non-Residential Property Maintenance Code was issued on June 30, 2020, which requires compliance within 30 days. The property owner has the right to appeal this notice to the Building Code Advisory Board.
May 22, 2020: Word Alive Ministries, which occupies the southeastern portion of the shopping center, is planning facade upgrades to their facility. The minor development permit can be viewed by
clicking here, which includes renderings.
Also included below, under Code Enforcement Status, are documents related to the city's efforts to bring the property into compliance with City Code (please see items 5 and 6).
February 20, 2020: After three attempts to resolve code issues with the property owner, City staff initiated legal action pursuant to the South Thornton Urban Renewal Authority Non-Residential Property Maintenance Code.
March 23, 2020: Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) issues "Advisement" to property owner to immediately revise previously approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) to incorporate new data revealed by City investment into testing, and resume remediation treatments of subsurface contamination. CDPHE threatens legal action unless owner takes "aggressive and prompt" action to implement CAP.
Code Enforcement Status:
- Preparing Building Code Advisory Board (BCAB) procedure to hear appeal filed by property owner (Ongoing)
- Attempting to negotiate stipulated agreement with property owner to resolve violations. (Ongoing)
-Must result in significant improvements on site quicker than could be anticipated from the BCAB appeal and likely subsequent legal action.
- Conduct BCAB appeal if needed. (Tentatively April 30th)
- Take immediate legal action to force compliance with property maintenance violations as may be required. (May/June)
Thornton Shopping Center - 1st Notice of Violations
Thornton LLC's Appeal of Notice of Violations
For several years, the city approach has been to facilitate sale and redevelopment through 3rd party facilitation. Since several prospects have failed to close, staff is evaluating a number of possible City actions. By the end of May 2020, staff will bring forward a number of options, complete with strategies, costs and timelines, along with staff's recommendation.
The Thornton Shopping Center has been in decline for many years and the presence of environmental contamination has prevented serious redevelopment inquiries from moving forward. The City of Thornton is interested in working to create a vastly improved area when redeveloping the site.
The current owner purchased the site about 15 years ago without conducting environmental due diligence. Little did he know that a former on-site dry cleaner had released solvents into the earth over many years, leaving a large area of soil contamination and impacted groundwater, which had migrated toward the southeast.
The contamination was discovered when United Properties redeveloped the south adjoining Plaza Las Americas, and the State of Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) has since declared that the owner of Thornton Shopping Center is liable for the entire cleanup under the federal Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). State and federal redevelopment resources (including EPA Browfield Grants) are not available for sites under RCRA enforcement, nor are liability protection instruments that developers often need in order to commit to redevelopment.
Thornton Shopping Center’s owner has spent more than $1 million on assessment and cleanup activities, with no real cleanup accomplished. The property continues to decline, as the owner claims to lack sufficient resources to make improvements to the buildings or invest in additional remediation. City staff shepherded several redevelopment prospects to the site, only to watch that interest wane due to the site’s environmental stigma, site financing difficulty, and developer’s inability to recoup sufficient return on investment necessary to clean up and redevelop the site.
Improper handling of dry cleaning chemicals over several decades has resulted in a release to the subsurface environment and migration off-site to the southeast. Perchloroethylene (or PERC) is a chlorinated solvent that is heavier than water, and while it may follow the direction of groundwater movement, it also follows fractures in the bedrock. It only takes a small amount of PERC to ruin a vast area of groundwater, and this volatile compound is very difficult to contain and treat. However, certain reactive agents can be injected into the subsurface to accelerate the natural decomposition of PERC.
In order to revitalize the site “sooner” as opposed to “later,” The Thornton Development Authority (TDA) indicated a willingness to provide cleanup funding in exchange for a quality, redeveloped site. The property owner entered into a Purchase and Sale Agreement (PSA) with Flywheel Capital on February 1, 2019; Flywheel completed extensive due diligence, which enabled accurate cleanup estimates of $3.9-$13.1 million, depending on specific technologies deployed and results desired.
For environmental data regarding the Thornton Shopping Center Site, please see CDPHE’s environmental records database:
For ease in your search, the EPA ID Number for Thornton Shopping Center is
In 2018, the TDA contracted for a new Phase I Environmental Site Assessment, which gives a clear picture of on-site environmental conditions at the time. Also in 2018, we asked our consultant, ERO, to evaluate Thornton, LLC's Corrective Action Plan and provide cost estimates for cleanup and demolition; read the report HERE.
Unfortunately, Flywheel terminated the Purchase and Sale Agreement on December 20, 2019, citing environmental and title contingencies. While Flywheel and their partners remain interested in the site, the owner has re-listed it for sale. The City of Thornton will continue to work with the property owner to correct code violations, and to create a redevelopment strategy.
Many people turned out to see the groundbreaking of Thornton's first shopping center, at 88th Avenue and Washington Street. The sign announces that an “ultra-modern shopping center is being erected on this strategic site.” The first stores opened at the Thornton Shopping Center in May 1955, and included Woolworth's and Miller's Market.
Miller’s Market was one of the first businesses to open in the Thornton Shopping Center. This 1950s photo shows Miller's Super Market, located in the new Thornton Shopping Center on Washington Street. The supermarket was the first grocery store to open in Thornton, giving local residents the chance to shop for groceries in their own community for the first time.
Wes Brown, one of Thornton’s original residents, welcomes shoppers at the grand opening of Miller’s Market. It was the first grocery store in Thornton, and was located at the Thornton Shopping Center. Today, one of Thornton’s water treatment plants is named after Wes Brown.